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Is Aptos another Solana driven by capital?
October 19, 2022
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Catalog

Preface.

  • What are the technical innovations of Aptos?
  • For Developers: Diem’s Greatest Legacy — Move Language
  • For users: Aptos’ secret key management and account recovery system
  • Establishing a developer camp
  • Relocation of Solana’s old generals
  • Public Chain Narrative Never Sleeps

Preface

In late July, the new public chain Aptos announced another $150 million round of funding led by FTX Ventures and Jump Crypto, which just completed a $200 million round of funding led by A16Z with participation from Multicoin Capital, FTX Ventures, and Coinbase Ventures in March of this year.

  • Is Aptos essentially building a new generation of high-performance public chains?
  • Does Aptos solve two core problems of the monolithic chain?
  • Is Aptos another Solana driven by capital?

What’s new about the new public chain narrative?

What are the technical innovations of Aptos?

I. Parallelization

Aptos’ network design divides transactions into different phases, each of which is independent and can be individually parallelized. This enables multiple instruction streams and multiple data streams, which can significantly improve network performance while allowing verification nodes to perform additional scaling in terms of storage, computing, etc. It also makes the development of the entire network more flexible, and iterative updates can be targeted at only one of the modules.

  • Batch processing: During transaction propagation, transactions are grouped into batches by each verifier. During the consensus process, batches are merged into blocks.
  • Continuous transaction broadcast: The propagation of transactions is decoupled from consensus. Verifiers continuously send grouped batches to other verifiers.
  • Transaction ordering and transaction execution: This step is actually the process of consensus implementation through DiemBFTV4, where the leading verifier proposes a state update for the block, sends the state increment and the state of the authenticated block to other verifying nodes. Other verifying nodes decide whether to vote or not, and if they vote, they can directly perform the calculation and execution without waiting for the consensus to be completed. Aptos uses the Block-STM parallel execution engine to manage the execution of transactions, which is an optimistic concurrency control. The following is the performance test.

Second, state synchronization

State synchronization is simply the coordination of all nodes to keep them in the same state.

III. Node architecture

Solana uses a leader node-centric pyramidal structure, where the leader nodes are competitively selected from the validation nodes to collect transactions, create blocks containing PoH, and update the network state. Aptos, on the other hand, adopts a star-like structure with a set of validation nodes in the network using DiemBFTv4 to achieve consensus.

  • Solana and Aptos’ solutions to improve network performance have more similarities. They both enhance processing speed by decoupling messaging and consensus, and share the mechanism of optimistic concurrency control. Solana focuses more on consensus and message broadcast parallelization, while Aptos does a more thorough job in parallelization, realizing consensus, broadcast, execution, and storage. Combined with Aptos’ excellent state synchronization solution, it performs better in UX and DX.
  • Solana’s aggressive node architecture can greatly improve network performance, but it lacks network resilience. The collapse of the leader node will lead to massive network downtime. Aptos comes up with a more middle-of-the-road solution that strikes a balance between performance and decentralization.
  • GPUs are suitable for data-intensive computing tasks and are generally used to handle highly threaded parallel computing. They are fine for processing large numbers of transactions, but their performance will drop dramatically when encountering events with strong business logic, which is why Solana shows good performance when processing large numbers of DeFi transactions, while its performance drops when dealing with NFT Mint. CPUs are generally used to handle logical event processing and serial computation, balancing logical transactions with data-intensive transaction execution. The design allows Aptos to better host commercial applications with strong logic.

For Developers: Diem’s Greatest Legacy — Move Language

Feature one: First Class Resources — the first sequence of resources

  1. Cannot be copied
  2. It cannot be implicitly discarded. When a program executes a function on Resources, ownership of the Resources must be transferred before the function ends.
  3. Can only be moved between stored locations in the program
  • Taking out (withdraw) a number of amounts (coins) from the sender (sender).
  • Deposit (deposit) coins to (deposit) the payee’s (payee) address.

For users: Aptos’ secret key management and account recovery system

Let’s look at the internal process of account creation in Aptos.

  1. Generate a signed public-private key pair (vk, sk)
  2. Obtain the selected signature scheme from the user: single or multi-signature
  3. Associate the public key vk with the signature scheme identifier (ssid) and derive the verification key of the established signature scheme by means of the hash function H: addr=H(vk, ssid), addr is a 32-byte or 256-bit value, which is also the permanent account address of this account
  4. Initialize the account sequence number (which refers to the number of transactions submitted and confirmed on the chain for the account; the number increases each time a transaction sent from the account is executed or aborted and stored on the chain) to 0. The addr and sequence number are stored as initial resources in the account
  5. Return a 256-bit account address as-is via the authentication key (note: the authentication key comes first, then the account address, although the two are identical)
  6. At this point, the account creation is complete and the user can use the private key sk to sign the transaction.

Is Aptos another Solana driven by capital?

Establishing a developer camp

The developers I’ve talked to are excited about using Move versus Rust or Solidity — Paul Veradittakit, Partner, Pantera

Relocation of Solana’s old generals

From the builder’s perspective, building a new public chain requires a lot of resources as well as time costs. Since the birth of Bitcoin, hundreds of public chains have been developed over the past decade. The power of the Ethernet ecosystem is that sufficient assets have been deposited and various different types of DeFi products can be built together like building blocks through contract-to-contract interactions, thus stimulating Ethernet ecology’s innovation.

Public Chain Narrative Never Sleeps

On January 3, 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin. 13 years later, Bitcoin has inspired a whole new industry and a new asset class worth nearly $1 trillion. The public chain narrative has unfolded.

Summary.

Whether from the perspective of technical features or development language, Aptos does not seem to be as innovative as Solana is to Ether. Aptos is more like a Solana with better performance and more network resilience, and the difference between Aptos and Solana is not like the difference between an internal combustion engine and a carriage. For the resource pricing and chain transaction problems that have traditionally existed in monolithic chains, Aptos does not completely solve the former, but rather, like Solana, it flattens the competition of transactions for block space by significantly improving scalability. Aptos relatively provides a perfect solution to the chain transaction problem.

Reference

https://developers.libra-china.org/docs/reference/glossary/index.html#move-virtual-machine-mvm

This article is for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as investment or other advice.
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